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Setting up Traefik v2 and cert-manager on Kapsule
Traefik (pronounced traffic) is a modern HTTP reverse proxy and load balancer designed to make the deploying of microservices easy. Traefik integrates with any HTTP and TCP-based applications and every major cluster technology.
Our goal in this tutorial is to:
- Expose Traefik 2 using a Scaleway LoadBalancer
- Deploy a test application on our cluster
- Expose this test application through an ingress object, using Traefik 2 (deployed by Kapsule)
- Expose this application securely (with
httpsand Let’s Encrypt, using cert-manager)
This tutorial is divided in two parts:
- First, we will check how to expose the Traefik 2 ingress controller shipped with
Kapsulewith a Scaleway LoadBalancer.
- In the second part, we will deploy a test application expose it in http with a DNS managed by Scaleway DNS, then use
cert-managerto create a Let’s Encrypt certificate and expose this application securely in
You need a Kubernetes Kapsule Cluster deployed with Traefik 2 to follow this tutorial. To deploy your cluster with Traefik 2 preinstalled, enter the Advanced Options during cluster creation, set Deploy an ingress controller to Yes and select Traefik 2 from the drop down list:
To expose Traefik 2 with a Scaleway LoadBalancer, deploy the following
yaml file on your cluster:
Create and open the file
traefik-loadbalancer.ymlin your favorite text editor and copy the following content into it:
apiVersion: v1kind: Servicemetadata: name: traefik-ingress namespace: kube-system labels: k8s.scw.cloud/ingress: traefik2spec: type: LoadBalancer ports: - port: 80 name: http targetPort: 8000 - port: 443 name: https targetPort: 8443 selector: app.kubernetes.io/name: traefik
kubectlto deploy the configuration:
$ kubectl create -f traefik-loadbalancer.ymlservice/traefik-ingress created
Verify that your LoadBalancer has been deployed correctly:
$ kubectl get svc -n kube-systemtraefik-ingress LoadBalancer 10.37.89.202 220.127.116.11 80:30509/TCP,443:32138/TCP 43s
You can see here that the IP address of your LoadBalancer is 18.104.22.168. If you ‘curl’ it you can reach the default backend (saying “404 page not found”) as no ingress objects are created and you are reaching it through the IP address:
$ curl 22.214.171.124404 page not found
It may take some minutes until your cluster is fully deployed and Traefik becomes availale.
We will be using the new DNS product, available on Scaleway Elements, to create a wildcard record pointing to this IP address (the domain used in this tutorial will be “mytest.com”). A wildcard record (
*.mydomain.com) allows you to point any sub-domain of your domain to the configured IP address.
Verify that the domain is pointed to the IP address of your LoadBalancer:
$ host foobar.mytest.comfoobar.mytest.com has address 126.96.36.199
Your domain is now pointing to your LoadBalancer IP, you can resolve any of your subdomain with that IP.
In this step, we deploy a test application called “tea coffee” which is only printing tea or coffee depending on the subpath you will reach.
kubectlto create the application
$ kubectl create -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/nginxinc/kubernetes-ingress/master/examples/complete-example/cafe.yaml
Create an associated ingress object pointing to teacoffee.mytest.com by creating and editing the file
ingress-teacoffee.ymlin your favorite text editor:
apiVersion: networking.k8s.io/v1kind: Ingressmetadata: name: cafe-ingressspec: rules: - host: teacoffee.mytest.com http: paths: - path: /tea pathType: Prefix backend: service: name: tea-svc port: number: 80 - path: /coffee pathType: Prefix backend: service: name: coffee-svc port: number: 80
Run the folowing command to setup the configuration:
$ kubectl create -f ingress-teacoffee.ymlingress.networking.k8s.io/cafe-ingress created
You can now use
curlto send a HTTP request this URL. Traefik 2 is working correctly with your wildcard DNS in plain, unencrypted HTTP (web unsecure).
$ curl teacoffee.mytest.com/teaServer address: 100.64.0.240:8080Server name: tea-69c99ff568-c2lc2Date: 29/Jun/2020:13:01:19 +0000URI: /teaRequest ID: f3b7f1bcd5dd841d420236906146af9f
To proceed with the tutorial, delete the ingress object created. It will be replaced in future steps.
$ kubectl delete ing cafe-ingress
Cert-manager is in charge of creating Let’s Encrypt TLS certificates to make your website secure, to sum-up:
- Create an ingress object for a specific subdomain (for instance foobar.mytest.com)- Let's Encrypt must be sure that the domain belongs to you. For this reason, Let's Encrypt requests a "challenge", in our case, an HTTP challenge. Meaning here that Let's Encrypt will try to reach `foobar.mytest.com`, and is able to see a specific hash on this page.- Cert-manager is serving this page for you by creating an ingress object and using an HTTP server.- When the challenge is ok, the certificate is created and added in a certificate object.- You can then use this certificate object to serve your website securely (HTTPS).
Any modification to the Traefik2 deployed by Kapsule may be overwritten by the reconciliation process, consider installing it yourself for a production usage.
Modify the default Traefik 2 daemonset running on Kapsule to do that, add
--providers.kubernetesIngress.ingressClass=traefik-cert-managerin the cmd stanza.
$ kubectl edit ds traefik -n kube-systemdaemonset.apps/traefik edited - --global.checknewversion - --global.sendanonymoususage - --entryPoints.traefik.address=:9000 - --entryPoints.web.address=:8000 - --entryPoints.websecure.address=:8443 - --providers.kubernetesIngress.ingressClass=traefik-cert-manager - --api.dashboard=true - --ping=true - --providers.kubernetescrd - --providers.kubernetesingress
Delete the existing Traefik pods in order to get the new arguments.
$ kubectl -n kube-system delete pod -l app.kubernetes.io/name=traefik
Use the command below to install cert-manager and its needed CRD (Custom Resource Definitions):
$ kubectl apply --validate=false -f https://github.com/jetstack/cert-manager/releases/download/v1.1.1/cert-manager.yamlcustomresourcedefinition.apiextensions.k8s.io/certificaterequests.cert-manager.io createdcustomresourcedefinition.apiextensions.k8s.io/certificates.cert-manager.io createdcustomresourcedefinition.apiextensions.k8s.io/challenges.acme.cert-manager.io createdcustomresourcedefinition.apiextensions.k8s.io/clusterissuers.cert-manager.io createdcustomresourcedefinition.apiextensions.k8s.io/issuers.cert-manager.io createdcustomresourcedefinition.apiextensions.k8s.io/orders.acme.cert-manager.io creatednamespace/cert-manager createdserviceaccount/cert-manager-cainjector createdserviceaccount/cert-manager createdserviceaccount/cert-manager-webhook createdclusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/cert-manager-cainjector createdclusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/cert-manager-controller-issuers createdclusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/cert-manager-controller-clusterissuers createdclusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/cert-manager-controller-certificates createdclusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/cert-manager-controller-orders createdclusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/cert-manager-controller-challenges createdclusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/cert-manager-controller-ingress-shim createdclusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/cert-manager-view createdclusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/cert-manager-edit createdclusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/cert-manager-cainjector createdclusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/cert-manager-controller-issuers createdclusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/cert-manager-controller-clusterissuers createdclusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/cert-manager-controller-certificates createdclusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/cert-manager-controller-orders createdclusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/cert-manager-controller-challenges createdclusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/cert-manager-controller-ingress-shim createdrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/cert-manager-cainjector:leaderelection createdrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/cert-manager:leaderelection createdrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/cert-manager-webhook:dynamic-serving createdrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/cert-manager-cainjector:leaderelection createdrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/cert-manager:leaderelection createdrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/cert-manager-webhook:dynamic-serving createdservice/cert-manager createdservice/cert-manager-webhook createddeployment.apps/cert-manager-cainjector createddeployment.apps/cert-manager createddeployment.apps/cert-manager-webhook createdmutatingwebhookconfiguration.admissionregistration.k8s.io/cert-manager-webhook createdvalidatingwebhookconfiguration.admissionregistration.k8s.io/cert-manager-webhook created
Create a cluster issuer that allow you to specify:
- the Let’s Encrypt server, if you want to replace the production environment with the staging one.
- the mail used by Let’s Encrypt to warn you about certificate expiration.
Copy and paste the following configuration in the file
cluster-issuer.yamlusing your favorite text editor:
apiVersion: cert-manager.io/v1kind: ClusterIssuermetadata: name: letsencrypt-prodspec: acme: # You must replace this email address with your own. # Let's Encrypt will use this to contact you about expiring # certificates, and issues related to your account. email: firstname.lastname@example.org server: https://acme-v02.api.letsencrypt.org/directory privateKeySecretRef: # Secret resource used to store the account's private key. name: issuer-account-key # Add a single challenge solver, HTTP01 solvers: - http01: ingress: class: traefik-cert-manager
kubectlto apply the configuration:
$ kubectl create -f cluster-issuer.yamlclusterissuer.cert-manager.io/letsencrypt-prod created
In this step you will create the Let’s Encrypt certificate by specifying:
- The secret name where the certificate will be stored.- The subdomain for which you want to create a certificate.- The issuer created before (letsencrypt-prod).
Create a edit a file
apiVersion: cert-manager.io/v1kind: Certificatemetadata: name: teacoffee-cert namespace: defaultspec: commonName: teacoffee.mytest.com secretName: teacoffee-cert dnsNames: - teacoffee.mytest.com issuerRef: name: letsencrypt-prod kind: ClusterIssuer
Apply the configuration using
$ kubectl create -f mycert.yamlcertificate.cert-manager.io/teacoffee-cert created
Check the certificate has been correctly created (you should see “Ready” in the condition):
$ kubectl describe certificate -n default teacoffee-certSpec: Common Name: teacoffee.mytest.org Dns Names: teacoffee.mytest.org Issuer Ref: Kind: ClusterIssuer Name: letsencrypt-prod Secret Name: teacoffee-certStatus: Conditions: Last Transition Time: 2021-02-24T16:50:42Z Message: Certificate is up to date and has not expired Reason: Ready Status: True Type: Ready Not After: 2021-05-25T15:50:41Z Not Before: 2021-02-24T15:50:41Z Renewal Time: 2021-04-25T15:50:41Z Revision: 1Events: Type Reason Age From Message ---- ------ ---- ---- ------- Normal Requested 11m cert-manager Created new CertificateRequest resource "teacoffee-cert-4271191437" Normal Issued 48s cert-manager Certificate issued successfully
Create a Traefik IngressRoute, with TLS enabled (with the name of the secret created by the creation of the certificate, in our case:
teacoffee-cert). To do so create file
mysite.yaml, copy the following content into it and run kubectl with the collowing command:
kubectl create -f mysite.yaml
apiVersion: traefik.containo.us/v1alpha1kind: IngressRoutemetadata: name: testcoffee namespace: defaultspec: entryPoints: - websecure routes: - match: Host(`teacoffee.mytest.com`) && PathPrefix(`/tea`) kind: Rule services: - name: tea-svc port: 80 - match: Host(`teacoffee.mytest.com`) && PathPrefix(`/coffee`) kind: Rule services: - name: coffee-svc port: 80 tls: secretName: teacoffee-cert
Check your website is accessible in HTTPS:
curl -v https://teacoffee.mytest.com/tea* Trying 188.8.131.52...* TCP_NODELAY set* Connected to teacoffee.mytest.com (184.108.40.206) port 443 (#0)* successfully set certificate verify locations:* CAfile: /etc/ssl/certs/ca-certificates.crt CApath: /etc/ssl/certs[..]* Server certificate:* subject: CN=teacoffee.mytest.com* start date: Jun 29 12:46:04 2020 GMT* expire date: Sep 27 12:46:04 2020 GMT* subjectAltName: host "teacoffee.mytest.com" matched cert's "teacoffee.mytest.com"* issuer: C=US; O=Let's Encrypt; CN=Let's Encrypt Authority X3* SSL certificate verify ok.[..]> GET /tea HTTP/2> Host: teacoffee.mytest.com> User-Agent: curl/7.58.0> Accept: */*>[..]Server address: 100.64.0.240:8080Server name: tea-69c99ff568-c2lc2Date: 29/Jun/2020:13:52:42 +0000URI: /teaRequest ID: b7a45b7b20bd712df75f8ce8596db50d* Connection #0 to host teacoffee.mytest.com left intact
Access the Traefik 2 dashboard by using this command:
$ kubectl port-forward -n kube-system $(kubectl get pods -n kube-system --selector "app.kubernetes.io/name=traefik" --output=name | head -n 1) 9000:9000
You can then access the Traefik 2 dashboard with this address:
http://127.0.0.1:9000/dashboard/(Note the trailing
To go further, you might be interested in the following pages: