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Setting up Traefik v2 and cert-manager on Kapsule
Traefik (pronounced traffic) is a modern HTTP reverse proxy and load balancer designed to make the deploying of microservices easy. Traefik integrates with any HTTP and TCP-based applications and every major cluster technology.
Our goal in this tutorial is to:
- Expose Traefik 2 using a Scaleway LoadBalancer
- Deploy a test application on our cluster
- Expose this test application through an ingress object, using Traefik 2 (deployed by Kapsule)
- Expose this application securely (with
httpsand Let’s Encrypt, using cert-manager)
This tutorial is divided in two parts:
- First, we will check how to expose the Traefik 2 ingress controller shipped with
Kapsulewith a Scaleway LoadBalancer.
- In the second part, we will deploy a test application expose it in http with a DNS managed by Scaleway DNS, then use
cert-managerto create a Let’s Encrypt certificate and expose this application securely in
You need a Kubernetes Kapsule Cluster deployed with Traefik 2 to follow this tutorial. To deploy your cluster with Traefik 2 preinstalled, enter the Advanced Options during cluster creation, set Deploy an ingress controller to Yes and select Traefik 2 from the drop down list:
To expose Traefik 2 with a Scaleway LoadBalancer, deploy the following
yaml file on your cluster:
Create and open the file
traefik-loadbalancer.ymlin your favorite text editor and copy the following content into it:
- port: 80
- port: 443
kubectlto deploy the configuration:
$ kubectl create -f traefik-loadbalancer.yml
Verify that your LoadBalancer has been deployed correctly:
$ kubectl get svc -n kube-system
traefik-ingress LoadBalancer 10.37.89.202 188.8.131.52 80:30509/TCP,443:32138/TCP 43s
You can see here that the IP address of your LoadBalancer is 184.108.40.206. If you ‘curl’ it you can reach the default backend (saying “404 page not found”) as no ingress objects are created and you are reaching it through the IP address:
$ curl 220.127.116.11
404 page not found
It may take some minutes until your cluster is fully deployed and Traefik becomes availale.
We will be using the new DNS product, available on Scaleway Elements, to create a wildcard record pointing to this IP address (the domain used in this tutorial will be “mytest.com”). A wildcard record (
*.mydomain.com) allows you to point any sub-domain of your domain to the configured IP address.
Verify that the domain is pointed to the IP address of your LoadBalancer:
$ host foobar.mytest.com
foobar.mytest.com has address 18.104.22.168
Your domain is now pointing to your LoadBalancer IP, you can resolve any of your subdomain with that IP.
In this step, we deploy a test application called “tea coffee” which is only printing tea or coffee depending on the subpath you will reach.
kubectlto create the application
$ kubectl create -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/nginxinc/kubernetes-ingress/master/examples/complete-example/cafe.yaml
Create an associated ingress object pointing to teacoffee.mytest.com by creating and editing the file
ingress-teacoffee.ymlin your favorite text editor:
- host: teacoffee.mytest.com
- path: /tea
- path: /coffee
Run the folowing command to setup the configuration:
$ kubectl create -f ingress-teacoffee.yml
You can now use
curlto send a HTTP request this URL. Traefik 2 is working correctly with your wildcard DNS in plain, unencrypted HTTP (web unsecure).
$ curl teacoffee.mytest.com/tea
Server address: 100.64.0.240:8080
Server name: tea-69c99ff568-c2lc2
Date: 29/Jun/2020:13:01:19 +0000
Request ID: f3b7f1bcd5dd841d420236906146af9f
To proceed with the tutorial, delete the ingress object created. It will be replaced in future steps.
$ kubectl delete ing cafe-ingress
Cert-manager is in charge of creating Let’s Encrypt TLS certificates to make your website secure, to sum-up:
- Create an ingress object for a specific subdomain (for instance foobar.mytest.com)
- Let's Encrypt must be sure that the domain belongs to you. For this reason, Let's Encrypt requests a "challenge", in our case, an HTTP challenge. Meaning here that Let's Encrypt will try to reach `foobar.mytest.com`, and is able to see a specific hash on this page.
- Cert-manager is serving this page for you by creating an ingress object and using an HTTP server.
- When the challenge is ok, the certificate is created and added in a certificate object.
- You can then use this certificate object to serve your website securely (HTTPS).
Any modification to the Traefik2 deployed by Kapsule may be overwritten by the reconciliation process, consider installing it yourself for a production usage.
Modify the default Traefik 2 daemonset running on Kapsule to do that, add
--providers.kubernetesIngress.ingressClass=traefik-cert-managerin the cmd stanza.
$ kubectl edit ds traefik -n kube-system
Delete the existing Traefik pods in order to get the new arguments.
$ kubectl -n kube-system delete pod -l app.kubernetes.io/name=traefik
Use the command below to install cert-manager and its needed CRD (Custom Resource Definitions):
$ kubectl apply --validate=false -f https://github.com/jetstack/cert-manager/releases/download/v1.1.1/cert-manager.yaml
Create a cluster issuer that allow you to specify:
- the Let’s Encrypt server, if you want to replace the production environment with the staging one.
- the mail used by Let’s Encrypt to warn you about certificate expiration.
Copy and paste the following configuration in the file
cluster-issuer.yamlusing your favorite text editor:
# You must replace this email address with your own.
# Let's Encrypt will use this to contact you about expiring
# certificates, and issues related to your account.
# Secret resource used to store the account's private key.
# Add a single challenge solver, HTTP01
kubectlto apply the configuration:
$ kubectl create -f cluster-issuer.yaml
In this step you will create the Let’s Encrypt certificate by specifying:
- The secret name where the certificate will be stored.
- The subdomain for which you want to create a certificate.
- The issuer created before (letsencrypt-prod).
Create a edit a file
Apply the configuration using
$ kubectl create -f mycert.yaml
Check the certificate has been correctly created (you should see “Ready” in the condition):
$ kubectl describe certificate -n default teacoffee-cert
Common Name: teacoffee.mytest.org
Secret Name: teacoffee-cert
Last Transition Time: 2021-02-24T16:50:42Z
Message: Certificate is up to date and has not expired
Not After: 2021-05-25T15:50:41Z
Not Before: 2021-02-24T15:50:41Z
Renewal Time: 2021-04-25T15:50:41Z
Type Reason Age From Message
---- ------ ---- ---- -------
Normal Requested 11m cert-manager Created new CertificateRequest resource "teacoffee-cert-4271191437"
Normal Issued 48s cert-manager Certificate issued successfully
Create a Traefik IngressRoute, with TLS enabled (with the name of the secret created by the creation of the certificate, in our case:
teacoffee-cert). To do so create file
mysite.yaml, copy the following content into it and run kubectl with the collowing command:
kubectl create -f mysite.yaml
- match: Host(`teacoffee.mytest.com`) && PathPrefix(`/tea`)
- name: tea-svc
- match: Host(`teacoffee.mytest.com`) && PathPrefix(`/coffee`)
- name: coffee-svc
Check your website is accessible in HTTPS:
curl -v https://teacoffee.mytest.com/tea
* Trying 22.214.171.124...
* TCP_NODELAY set
* Connected to teacoffee.mytest.com (126.96.36.199) port 443 (#0)
* successfully set certificate verify locations:
* CAfile: /etc/ssl/certs/ca-certificates.crt
* Server certificate:
* subject: CN=teacoffee.mytest.com
* start date: Jun 29 12:46:04 2020 GMT
* expire date: Sep 27 12:46:04 2020 GMT
* subjectAltName: host "teacoffee.mytest.com" matched cert's "teacoffee.mytest.com"
* issuer: C=US; O=Let's Encrypt; CN=Let's Encrypt Authority X3
* SSL certificate verify ok.
> GET /tea HTTP/2
> Host: teacoffee.mytest.com
> User-Agent: curl/7.58.0
> Accept: */*
Server address: 100.64.0.240:8080
Server name: tea-69c99ff568-c2lc2
Date: 29/Jun/2020:13:52:42 +0000
Request ID: b7a45b7b20bd712df75f8ce8596db50d
* Connection #0 to host teacoffee.mytest.com left intact
Access the Traefik 2 dashboard by using this command:
$ kubectl port-forward -n kube-system $(kubectl get pods -n kube-system --selector "app.kubernetes.io/name=traefik" --output=name | head -n 1) 9000:9000
You can then access the Traefik 2 dashboard with this address:
http://127.0.0.1:9000/dashboard/(Note the trailing
To go further, you might be interested in the following pages: