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How to Set Up a Django Web Framework on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS (Focal Fossa)
Django is a web development framework for developing dynamic websites and applications. Django allows the use of less code and eases the creation of complex websites. It provides a very good structure and easy methods that help to do the heavy lifting when writing web applications.
There are many different ways to install the Django framework on Ubuntu:
Django installation with pip in a virtual environment: By installing pip, you can install Django for use by any user on the system. The pip should always contain the latest stable Django. By using this method, you can install Django without affecting the entire system. This is typically the most practical and recommended approach to working with Django.
Django installation from packages: Ubuntu repositories contain Django packages (using the
aptpackage manager). The main disadvantage is the version contained in the repositories may lag behind the official versions available from the project.
Django installation from its github repository: if you wish to install the latest development version instead of the stable release.
In this tutorial, we will install Django with pip in a virtual environment, as it is the most practical and most flexible way to install without affecting the larger system, along with other per-project customizations and packages.
Update your local package index with
Check which version of Python you have installed. The version currently shipped with Ubuntu 20.04 is Python 3.8.2:
root@Django:~# python3 -V
Install pip from the Ubuntu repositories
apt install python3-pip python3-django
apt install python3-venv
Once that is done, you can now start a new project in Django. Remember that whenever you start a new project, start by creating and moving into a new project directory.
Create a virtual environment within the project directory using the python command that’s compatible with your version of Python. We will call our virtual environment
python3.8 -m venv my_env
This will install standalone versions of Python and pip into an isolated directory structure within your project directory. A directory will be created with the name you select, which will hold the file hierarchy where your packages will be installed.
To install packages into the isolated environment, you must activate it by typing:
Your prompt should change to reflect that you are now in your virtual environment. It will look something like:
In your environment, install Django with pip
pip install django
Verify the version installed
(my_env) root@Django:~/newhostA# django-admin --version
To leave your virtual environment, you need to issue the deactivate command from anywhere on the system:
Your prompt should revert to the normal display.Note:
If you need to re-activate your virtual environment, moving back into your project directory and activating:
With Django installed, we can now start to create our project and test it on your development server using a virtual environment.
Create a directory for your project
Create your virtual environment
python3.8 -m venv my_env
Activate the environment
djangoin the environment:
pip install django
To create your project, use
django-admin <command> [options]which is Django’s command-line utility for administrative tasks. In each Django project, a
manage.pyis automatically created.
startprojectcommand enables to create a new project. The command creates a directory within your current working directory that includes:
manage.pywhich you can use to administer various Django-specific tasks.
- a directory (with the same name as the project) that includes the actual project code.
Create your project(
myDjangoProject). Add a period at the end of the command to place the management script and inner directory in the current directory.
django-admin startproject myDjangoProject .
Migrate the database (this example uses SQLite by default) using the
migratecommand with manage.py. Migrations apply any changes you’ve made to your Django models to your database schema.
python manage.py migrate
Operations to perform:
Apply all migrations: admin, auth, contenttypes, sessions
Applying contenttypes.0001_initial... OK
Applying auth.0001_initial... OK
Applying admin.0001_initial... OK
Applying admin.0002_logentry_remove_auto_add... OK
Applying admin.0003_logentry_add_action_flag_choices... OK
Applying contenttypes.0002_remove_content_type_name... OK
Applying auth.0002_alter_permission_name_max_length... OK
Applying auth.0003_alter_user_email_max_length... OK
Applying auth.0004_alter_user_username_opts... OK
Applying auth.0005_alter_user_last_login_null... OK
Applying auth.0006_require_contenttypes_0002... OK
Applying auth.0007_alter_validators_add_error_messages... OK
Applying auth.0008_alter_user_username_max_length... OK
Applying auth.0009_alter_user_last_name_max_length... OK
Applying sessions.0001_initial... OK
Create an administrative user so that you can use the Djano admin interface using the
python manage.py createsuperuser
Answers the prompts which will ask for:
- A username, an email address, and a password for your user.
- An email
- A password (containing at least 8 characters)
(my_env) root@Django:~/my-django# python manage.py createsuperuser
Username (leave blank to use 'root'): scaleway
Email address: firstname.lastname@example.org
Superuser created successfully.
Open the settings file
To test your application, you will need to modify one of the directives in the Django settings. Locate the
ALLOWED_HOSTSdirective to define the addresses or domain names that may be used to connect to the Django instance.
List the IP addresses or domain names that are associated with your Django server.Note:
Each item should be listed in quotations, with separate entries separated by a comma.
. . .
ALLOWED_HOSTS = ['your_server_ip_or_domain', 'your_second_ip_or_domain', . . .]
Save the file and exit
Start the development server
python manage.py runserver your_server_ip:8000
Visit your server’s IP address followed by :8000 in your web browser
which should display
/admin/to the end of your URL. The login page displays.
Enter your username and password. The admin page displays.
The Django project you’ve created provides the structural basis for designing a more complete site. Check out the Django documentation for more information about how to build your applications and customize your site.
To go further with Django, learn how to create models and configure your application with the API and the Admin Console.