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Understanding the differences between ARM and x86 Instances

Reviewed on 05 February 2024

In cloud computing and data centers, the dominance of x86 architecture has been unchallenged for decades. However, with the rise of ARM processors, a new type of Instance is emerging, promising efficiency and performance. This page helps you understand the technical differences between ARM and x86 Instances, highlighting their advantages and disadvantages.

Understanding the architectural differences between x86 and ARM

x86 Instances

x86 Instances are provided with processors from Intel Xeon or AMD EPYC families being common choices.

x86 Architecture:

  • Developed by Intel, x86 architecture is a family of instruction set architectures (ISAs) for computer processors.
  • It is a complex instruction set computing (CISC) architecture, which means it has a rich set of instructions, some of which execute complex tasks.
  • x86 processors are known for their high performance and are widely used in desktops, laptops, and servers.
  • Raw Performance: x86 CPUs generally provide superior single-threaded performance, necessary for legacy applications and specific high-performance computing tasks.
  • Software Ecosystem: The x86 architecture has a vast software ecosystem, including operating systems, development tools, and enterprise applications.
  • Virtualization: x86 processors have advanced virtualization features essential for efficient cloud operations and running multiple containers in a VM.

ARM Instances

ARM Instances in the cloud are typically powered by for-purpose designed processors such as the Ampere Altra, designed for high efficiency and lower power consumption.

ARM Architecture:

  • ARM architecture, initially developed by ARM Holdings, stands for Advanced RISC Machine.
  • It is a reduced instruction set computing (RISC) architecture, which simplifies the processor design and focuses on efficiency.
  • ARM processors are prevalent in mobile devices, embedded systems, and, increasingly, in servers and cloud infrastructure.
  • Energy efficiency: ARM’s chip design allows for more efficient processing per watt, leading to significant energy savings, especially at scale.
  • Scalability: ARM’s simplicity allows for highly scalable designs suitable for environments with a high density of cores.
  • Customization: ARM licenses its architecture to various manufacturers, enabling customization for specific use cases or optimization for certain workloads.

Choosing between ARM and x86 Instances

The decision between ARM and x86 Instances is often not straightforward and depends on various factors, including the specific application workload, energy efficiency objectives, and software ecosystem prerequisites.

  • Workload compatibility: If your applications are compiled for ARM and can leverage its efficiency, ARM Instances may be the right choice. However, if you rely on legacy software or specific x86 features, x86 Instances might be unavoidable.
  • Performance needs: When it comes to raw computational power, particularly in single-threaded applications, x86 Instances frequently surpass their ARM counterparts. However, in scenarios with workloads that can be parallelized, ARM’s multi-core efficiency may offer advantages.
  • Energy efficiency: Organizations with a strong emphasis on sustainability may lean towards ARM due to its power efficiency.


The rise of ARM in the cloud computing market is pushing the industry towards more energy-efficient and sustainable solutions, providing a competitive alternative to traditional x86 offerings. ARM Instances are known for their energy efficiency and reduced environmental impact, making them attractive to organizations prioritizing environmental responsibility.

While x86 Instances continue to dominate in terms of raw power and software ecosystem, ARM is carving out a niche in sustainable cloud and server solutions. This shift is influenced by the increasing awareness of ecological considerations in technology choices.

As technology advances, the choice between ARM and x86 may be driven not only by technical specifications but also by their ecological impact. ARM’s alignment with green computing principles positions it as a key player in the transition to a more sustainable digital infrastructure.

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