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How to manage DNS records

Reviewed on 07 June 2021Published on 07 June 2021

Information in DNS zones is categorized and organized through a list of DNS record types, called Resource Records (RRs).

Each of these records has a type, an expiration time (Time to Live - TTL) and a name. Certain types of records also have type-specific data.

The available records are:

  • A record: Address record, it is mostly used to map domain names to the IPv4 address of a specific server
  • AAAA record: IPv6 Address record, it returns an IPv6 address and is mostly used to map domain names to the IPv6 address of a specific server.
  • CNAME record: Canonical name record, an alias of one name to another. The DNS lookup will continue by looking up the new name.
  • MX record: Mail exchange record, it maps a domain name to a list of one or several mail servers for that domain.
  • TXT record: Text record, it is often used to carry machine-readable data such as information for automated domain validation.
  • SRV record: Service record, it provides a specification of data in the Domain Name System defining the location (for example: the hostname and port number of servers for specified services). It can be used for specific protocols such as SIP (Session Initiation Protocol)
  • TLSA record: TLS Authentication record, it is used to associate a TLS certificate or public key with the specified domain name. It allows you store the fingerprint of a TLS/SSL certificate in the DNS zone of your domain.
  • NS record: Name server record, it delegates a DNS zone to use the specified authoritative name servers.
  • CAA record: Certification Authority Authorization record, it is used to set which certificate authorities (CAs) are allowed to issue certificates for the domain name.
  • ALIAS record: The alias record maps a name to another name. It is similar to CNAME records but can coexist with other records on that name. It can be used if you want to map one name to another, and you do not need other record types (for example: MX records for emails) for the same name.
Requirements:

How to add DNS records

  1. Click DNS in the Network section of the Scaleway Console side menu. The DNS zone dashboard displays.

  2. Click «See more Icon», then More info next to the domain you want to manage. The Domain Information page displays.

  3. Click the Zones tab. A list of the zones configured within the selected domain displays.

  4. Click the name of the DNS zone you want to edit. A list of the zone’s records displays.

  5. Click + Add records to add a new record to your DNS zone. A pop up displays.

  6. Fill in the required information for the record, then confirm by clicking Add Records.

How to edit DNS records

  1. Click DNS in the Network section of the Scaleway Console side menu. The DNS zone dashboard displays.

  2. Click «See more Icon», then More info next to the domain you want to manage. The Domain Information page displays.

  3. Click the Zones tab. A list of the zones configured within the selected domain displays.

  4. Click the name of the DNS zone you want to edit. A list of the zone’s records displays.

  5. Click «Edit Icon» and fill in the required information. Then click «Validate Icon» to save. If you wish to cancel changes before saving, click «Cancel Icon».

How to delete DNS records

  1. Click DNS in the Network section of the Scaleway Console side menu. The DNS zone dashboard displays.

  2. Click «See more Icon», then More info next to the domain you want to manage. The Domain Information page displays.

  3. Click the Zones tab. A list of the zones configured within the selected domain displays.

  4. Click «Delete Icon». A pop up displays.

  5. Click Delete this record to remove the record from the zone.

How to configure dynamic records

Scaleway DNS provides advanced features for traffic management using your DNS zone. It allows you to redirect users based on their geolocation, the load on your different servers and more.

Weight Records

You provide a list of IPs with their corresponding “weights”. These weights are used to proportionally direct requests to each IP. Depending on the weight of a record, more or fewer requests are answered with its related IP compared to the others in the list.

Example
Your website runs on a large server and has a smaller companion to provide more resources. You can configure the list so that DNS will answer with the IP address of the main server 90% of the time, and with the IP address of the secondary server 10% of the time. With a list of coupled IP/weights, depending on the “weight”, IPs with heavier weights will answer more requests than those with lighter weights.
Limitation
This record type is only available for A and AAAA records.

Geo IP Records

The Geo IP feature provides DNS resolution, based on the user’s geographical location. You can define a default IP which resolves if no Geo IP rule matches, and specify IPs for each geographical zone.

Example
Your website has two servers: one in Europe and one in Asia, and its visitor base spans both continents. DNS replies to requests from visitors in Asia with the IP address of the server located in Asia, and to requests from visitors in Europe with the IP address of the server located in Europe. This reduces network latency and makes your website faster.
Limitations
This record type is only available for A, AAAA, CNAME and ALIAS records.

Healthcheck records

The DNS service performs healthchecks as follows:

  • You define a list of IPs (a pool) reachable via a single URL.
  • The servers in the IP pool are contacted by their IP, and a HTTP GET request is sent to each, with the URL as a parameter .
  • Each IP passes the healthcheck if it sends a response which includes a predefined string.

Having established the ‘healthy’ IPs, the DNS service responds to requests using one of the following strategies:

  • Random: It sends a random healthy IP.
  • Hashed: It uses the caller’s IP address to send a specific random healthy IP, which will always be returned for this caller IP.

If none of the addresses in the IP list has passed the health check, it sends a fallback IP.

Note:

The following table shows more explicitly how the results of the IP healthcheck determine the single IP address that the DNS service will send:

IP list healthcheckFallback IP checkResponse
all or some IPs OKn/aA healthy IP from the list
no IPs OKOKThe fallback IP
no IPs OKnot OKAn IP from the IP list OR the fallback IP

The following values should be provided to use the DNS healthcheck service:

  • Fallback IP: The fallback IP address to return if all health checks fail.
  • URL: A (common) URL to use in GET (e.g. http://example.com/healthcheck).
  • Data: The string to look for in the GET result (e.g. IamHealthy).
  • Response strategy: The strategy to use. It can either be random or hashed.
    • Random: A random IP from the pool of healthy IPs is returned upon each request.
    • Hashed: The same (random) IP, from the pool of healthy IPs is always returned to same caller IP.
  • IPs: A list of IPs to test during the check (e.g. 1.2.3.4, 2.3.4.5, …).
Example
A website relies on different servers and maintenance is planned on one of them. To plan the maintenance, an endpoint is configured to fail over one hour before and during the planned period so requests will not be forwarded to the impacted server.
Limitations
This record type is only available for A and AAAA records.

Views records

The answer to a DNS request is based on the client’s (resolver) subnet.

Example
A website has a public version with a public IP. A specific version for employees exists on an intranet. To use the same domain name for both versions, the Intranet IP will be answered if the DNS resolution is requested from the Intranet subnet, while for any other requests the DNS request will resolve to the public IP address.
Limitations
This record type is only available for A, AAAA, CNAME and ALIAS records.
See Also